Today, society is rethinking the status of education. Education is no longer seen as an industry serving the interests of production. The very notion of “education” should be understood as a special category of value, defining the foundations of human existence and the form of formation of the spiritual in man. The key idea of integral education is that it cannot be limited to transmitting to the younger generation a body of knowledge, but must become a form of formation and development of human abilities to interact with others, at the same time allowing them to assert their own individuality, not a resource of social production, but a genuine subject of active interaction and construction of the future world.
Причины системного кризиса в образовании
The modern approach to education implements two goals in relation to society:
1) to turn the school into an industry of capitalist production, the dividends of which are appropriated by corporations;
2) set up the school to produce “human capital,” invested in global global production for the benefit of transnational capital. And also on the production of “human resources ” – people of consumer society, mindless performers of narrow specialized functions in the system of division of labor, devoid of ideals and values of homeland and family, inclined to consume the products and services of the global market, increasingly developing in man virtual and hypertrophied needs.
A new strategy for the development of education is needed, in which the interest of transnational corporations will be limited. The central place in it should take the interest of society, focused on the vector of integral civilizational development, declaring as a priority the value of love and respect for others, the assertion of the spiritual component, manifested in the correction of relationships between people.
In order for all this to be possible, it is necessary not just to make a “cosmetic repair” of education, but to literally carry out a transformation of its essence: the worldview of its foundations, its purposeful aspirations, a fundamental change of the old way of life, already inadequate to the existing historical challenges.
To overcome the current catastrophic situation in the education system, it is necessary to gradually implement a model to overcome the systemic crisis:
1. the definition and adoption at the state level of the goal of developing integral education.
2. Based on the new goals, develop a strategy for a gradual transition to a new educational policy.
3. Smooth, systematic construction of an integral method of education.
In order for the educational system to function smoothly and properly, it is necessary, at a minimum, to be very clear: a) the image of the future as a strategic super-task of society; b) the ideal of a person capable of realizing this image of the future; c) pedagogical tactics for raising such a person; d) the educational goal of the system, consisting of the ideal and the pedagogical tactics. The clarity of these four foundations makes it possible to unmistakably define the content of education and its means.
In this regard, our society and the state face an important and responsible goal – a paradigm shift in education. It doesn’t make sense for the current educational system to be updated and rebuilt. It needs to be changed. The idea of collectivity, mutual respect and love is a paradigm that can move the whole world toward a prosperous and happy future.
Therefore, if we want to lead our civilization to prosperity, we will have to get down to preparing the next generation to enter an integral world. The new generation must be taught the laws by which the global world lives. Today’s school does not pay attention to the fact that all of Nature is interconnected as a single organism. It also prevents the student from treating himself as an integral part of society and the universe, and from teaching him to consider others. By perceiving himself as part of the world and comparing his development with the evolution of mankind, the child can see where he is going, where his place in the world is, i.e. to internalize the desire to integrate all of humanity on the basis of love for one’s neighbor.
Основные принципы интегрального воспитания и образования
Integral upbringing and education involves not only changing the curriculum, that is, learning about the properties of the global world, but also the form of education itself. The school must become more involved in real life. After all, children cannot naturally integrate into society without participating in adult life. But the most important thing is that the children’s environment itself is built so that peers and older students by their own example educate the child.
It is important not only to educate children in the real world – at school and in the yard – but also in the virtual environment. The younger generation is getting deeper and deeper into this environment, which means it needs to be reformatted in a way that fosters the reality of human relationships rather than imitating fantasy superheroes. So far, the virtual environment creates a cruel world in which it is difficult to distinguish good from evil.
Virtual reality and computer games provoke alienation and alienation of children from each other. They remain behind the TV screen, interacting with the world through avatars and invented images.
Parenting is the science of interacting with others. Young people really miss this science if they didn’t get it when they were young. They often live their whole lives in fantasy and alone. Integral education is a system of transmitting to the new generation the aspiration to freely choose their destiny, goodness and search for the meaning of life. Therefore, education must consist in leading a person so that he himself, consciously, by his own efforts, by his own decision and free choice to achieve the property of love for his neighbor.
Education is a way of realizing oneself as an integral part of humanity. In this process, the worldview changes from an egoistic to an integral, whole, perception of the world as an organism. In this approach, the child becomes more sensitive to the needs of the other, seeks to be helpful, and behaves altruistically.
Upbringing is the way of individual growth. As the sages used to say , “Educate the boy according to his ways,” that is, without forcing him to become what the educator understands, but according to his aspirations and abilities. All inclinations only need to be channeled in the right direction. Then the adolescent will find a use for himself and get a profession to his liking, will be able to develop internally.
Parenting is a way of learning by example. The person does not learn frontally, by logical arguments, from words, but perceives everything happening by taking an example from adults and peers, including emotionally. Therefore, the decisive factor in upbringing is the environment. The child absorbs examples of behavior, thoughts, and desires from him.
Nurturing others is the best way to reinforce values and norms. By helping the younger ones, the teenager is able to understand himself and others better. And younger children are more receptive to the example of older children than adults. Therefore, it is better to build an upbringing according to a pyramid, where older children serve as an example for the younger ones.
Parenting is a focus on constant inner work. If the child will be aimed at the development of the collective, and will perceive himself as an organic part of it, it will be easier for him to develop internal integral qualities: empathy, collectivism, a spirit of friendliness and benefit to society.
It is necessary to emphasize the importance of discussion in the circle. At the round table, the student learns to listen and hear, to find one solution with others, to rise above the multitude of opinions. He learns to appreciate the characteristics in each person, to compare himself with the other children and thereby connect with everyone and integrate into the whole.
To guide the way out of the systemic crisis of education and upbringing, a step-by-step program based on an integral approach must be adopted. Many manuals and books on integral methodology should be developed and written that prove the magnificence and sublimity of altruistic qualities.
Integral methodology involves a wealth of practice: roundtables, play-based learning, schools of integral education. By making an effort to organize the “circle method,” we arouse a special good force of nature that shapes, unites, and brings us to a state of mutual inclusion in each other, when all our egoistic urges are lost. Then it will be possible to feel others more than oneself, higher than oneself, more important than oneself. As the mother treats the infant, for whom he is more important than herself, so the man must come to have the same power that shapes the mother’s attitude toward the child affect him.
The whole nation, from small to large, should study according to the manuals, i.e. at all levels. This does not refer to the age of the person, for it is impossible to oblige an infant, a young child, or even a teenager to realize the greatness of a higher purpose and the means to achieve it. This requires starting with a small group to prepare the younger generation through kindergartens and schools so that they can become aware of the importance of altruistic behavior in society during their teenage years.
For in a person who receives the higher attributes, there is a revolution in the perception of reality. He begins to feel everyone is closer than himself, more important than himself, higher than himself. Their knowledge, feelings, thoughts, approach, principles of decision become more important than his own. Through others he begins to see the world beyond himself, and eventually realizes that there is a common, unified, good force in the world that pervades all of creation. It fills the world with goodness, love, interconnectedness, a sense of eternity, perfection. All this is revealed by a person who acquires the properties of feeling for his neighbor.
Gradually he expands his circle, which begins with a dozen formed of people close to him in spirit, in methodology, and in purpose. He then draws the outside tens to this ten, and then moves on to the people. And only after that does he move on to unite with the rest of the people of the world.
What are the possible outcomes of the integral approach?
For the student: expansion and strengthening of motivation for joint activity; awareness of himself as an integral member of the community; formation of an individual style in the process of interpersonal interaction; development of personal reflection; active formation of an integral worldview.
For the group of students: development of relations of interdependence and support of group members; awareness and acceptance of the altruistic basis of interpersonal relations; formation of a style of group work through search of coordinated interactions between students; awareness of interdependence of individual and group reflection on the process and result of activity; development of group unity in solving problems “in the circle”.
For the class: optimization of the atmosphere in class; formation of skills of cooperation; development of individual and collective responsibility for the process and result of activity; development of skills of optimum interaction in problematic and conflict situations; development of a system of group reflection, fixing the effects of cooperation in interpersonal relations; formation of value-oriented unity of the collective.
To summarize, we note that the need and opportunity to introduce integral interaction in the educational process is due to the requirements of time and the development of society. Obviously, the integral approach is able to solve pedagogical, psychological and social problems, which is one of the most important conditions for education and contributes to the transition to a manageable and favorable future.
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