Today, society is rethinking the status of education. Education is no longer considered as an industry that serves the interests of production. The very concept of "education" should be understood as a special value category that determines the foundations of human existence and the form of becoming spiritual in a person. The key idea of integral education is that it cannot be limited only to the transfer of a body of knowledge to the younger generation, but should become a form of formation and development of a person's ability to interact with others, at the same time allowing him to defend his own individuality, to be not a resource of social production, but a true subject of active interaction and construction of the future world.
Causes of the systemic crisis in education
The modern approach to education realizes two goals in relation to society:
1) to turn the school into a branch of capitalist production , dividends from which are appropriated by corporations;
2) set up the school for the production of "human capital" invested in global world production in the interests of transnational capital. And also for the production of "human resources" - people of the consumer society, thoughtless performers of narrow specialized functions in the system of division of labor, devoid of the ideals and values of the homeland and family, inclined to consume products and services of the global market, which increasingly develops virtual and hypertrophied needs in a person.
A new strategy for the development of education is needed, in which the interest of transnational corporations will be limited. The central place in it should be occupied by the interest of a society oriented towards the vector of integral civilizational development, declaring as a priority the value of love and respect for one's neighbor, the affirmation of the spiritual component manifested in the correction of relationships between people.
Чтобы всё это оказалось возможным, необходимо совершить не просто “косметический ремонт” образования, а буквально осуществить преображение его сути: мировоззренческих оснований, его целевых устремлений, принципиальной смены старого уклада, уже неадекватного существующим историческим вызовам.
To overcome the current catastrophic situation in the education system, it is necessary to gradually implement the model for overcoming the systemic crisis:
1. Definition and adoption at the state level of the goal of development of integral education.
2. Based on the new goals, develop a strategy for a gradual transition to a new educational policy.
3. Smooth and systematic construction of an integral methodology of education .
In order for the educational system to function smoothly and properly, it is necessary at least to be extremely clear: a) the image of the future as a strategic super-task of society; b) the ideal of a person capable of realizing this image of the future; c) pedagogical tactics of educating such a person; d) the educational goal of the system, which consists of the ideal and pedagogical tactics. The clarity of these four foundations makes it possible to accurately determine the content of education and its means.
В связи с этим перед нашим обществом и государством стоит важная и ответственная цель — изменение парадигмы образования. Не имеет смысла нынешнюю систему образования обновлять и перестраивать. Её нужно менять. Идея коллективизма, взаимоуважения и любви – это парадигма, которая может продвинуть весь мир к процветанию и счастливому будущему.
Therefore, if we want to bring our civilization to prosperity, we will have to come to grips with preparing the future generation to enter the integral world. The new generation must be taught the laws by which the global world lives. In today's school, attention is not paid to the fact that all of Nature is interconnected, as a single organism. This does not allow the student to treat himself as an integral part of society and the universe, does not teach him to reckon with others. Having perceived himself as part of the world and comparing his development with the evolution of mankind, the child will be able to see where he is going, where his place in the world is, i.e. to assimilate the desire for the integration of all mankind on the basis of love for one's neighbor.
Basic principles of integral upbringing and education
Integral upbringing and education implies not only a change in the program, that is, the study of the properties of the global world, but also the very form of education. The school should become more involved in real life. After all, children cannot naturally integrate into society without participating in the lives of adults. But the main thing is that the children's environment itself should be built in such a way that peers and older students raise the child by their own example.
At the same time, it is important that not only the children's environment in the real world, at school and in the yard, but also the virtual environment educates. The younger generation is getting deeper and deeper into this environment, which means that it needs to be reformatted in such a way that it brings up not an imitation of fantasy superheroes, but the reality of human relationships. So far, the virtual environment creates a cruel world in which it is difficult to distinguish good from evil.
Virtual reality and computer games provoke alienation and alienation of children from each other. They remain behind the TV screen, interacting with the world through avatars and imaginary images.
Education is the science of interaction with others . Young people really lack this science if they did not receive it in childhood. They often live their whole lives in fantasies and alone. Integral education is a system of transferring to a new generation aspirations for the free choice of their own destiny, goodness and the search for the meaning of life. Therefore, education should consist in bringing a person to the fact that he himself, consciously, by his own strength, by his decision and free choice, achieves the quality of love for his neighbor.
Education is a way of realizing oneself as an integral part of humanity. In this process, the worldview changes from an egoistic to an integral, integral, perception of the world as an organism. In this approach, the child begins to better feel the needs of another, strives to be useful, behave altruistically.
Education is the way of individual growth. As the sages said , "educate the child according to his path" , that is, without coercion, he becomes the way the teacher understands, but according to his aspirations and abilities. All inclinations need only be directed in the right direction. Then the boy will find a use for himself and get a profession to his liking, he will be able to develop internally.
Education is a way of learning by example. A person does not learn frontally, by logical arguments, from words, but perceives everything that happens, taking an example from adults and peers, turning on emotionally. Therefore, the decisive factor in education is the environment. The child absorbs from him examples of behavior, thoughts and desires.
Educating others is the best way to reinforce values and norms. By helping the younger ones, a teenager is able to better understand himself and others . And the younger ones perceive the example of older children better than adults . Therefore, it is better to build upbringing on a pyramid, where older children serve as an example for younger ones.
Education is an orientation towards constant inner work. If the child is focused on the development of the team, and perceives himself as an organic part of it, it will be easier for him to develop internal integral qualities: empathy, collectivism, a mood of friendliness and benefit to society.
The importance of the circle discussion needs to be stressed. At the round table, the student learns to listen and hear, to find one solution together with others, rising above many opinions. He learns to appreciate the peculiarities in each person, compare himself with other children and thereby connect with everyone and integrate into the whole.
To focus on a way out of the systemic crisis of education and upbringing, it is necessary to adopt a phased program based on an integral approach. It is necessary to develop and write many manuals and books on the integral method, which prove the magnificence and sublimity of altruistic qualities.
Интегральная методика предполагает богатую практику: круглые столы, игровое обучение, школы интегрального образования. Прилагая усилия в организации “методики круга”, мы возбуждаем особую добрую силу природы, формирующую, объединяющую и доводящую нас до состояния взаимного включения друг в друга, когда теряются все наши эгоистические побуждения. Тогда станет возможным ощущать других больше, чем себя, выше себя, важнее себя. Как мать относится к младенцу, для которой он важнее самой себя, так и человек должен прийти к тому, чтобы та же сила, которая формирует отношение матери к ребенку, повлияла на него.
All the people, young and old, should study according to methodological manuals; at all levels. This does not mean the age of a person, because it is impossible to oblige an infant, a small child, and even a teenager to realize the greatness of the highest goal and the means to achieve it. To do this, it is necessary to start with a small group that will prepare the younger generation through kindergartens and schools so that they can realize the importance of altruistic behavior in society during adolescence.
After all, in a person who receives the highest properties, there is a revolution in the perception of reality. He begins to feel everyone closer than himself, more important than himself, higher than himself. Their knowledge, feelings, thoughts, approach, decision principles become more important than his own. Through others, he begins to see the world outside of himself, and eventually comprehends that in the world there is a common, unified, good force that permeates the entire universe. It fills the world with goodness, love, interconnection, a sense of eternity, perfection. All this is revealed by a person who acquires the properties of feeling his neighbor.
Gradually, he expands his circle, which begins with a dozen, formed from people who are close to him in spirit, in methodology and in purpose. Then he attracts external tens to this ten, and then goes to the people. And only after that he proceeds to unite with the rest of the people of the world.
What are the possible results of the implementation of the integral approach?
For the student: expansion and strengthening of motivation for joint activities; awareness of oneself as an integral member of the community; formation of an individual style in the process of interpersonal interaction; development of personal reflection; active formation of an integral worldview.
For a group of students: developing a relationship of interdependence and support for group members; awareness and acceptance of the altruistic basis of interpersonal relationships; formation of group work style through the search for coordinated interactions between students; awareness of the interdependence of individual and group reflection on the process and result of activity; development of group unity in solving problems "in a circle".
For the classroom : optimization of the atmosphere in the classroom; formation of cooperation skills; development of individual and collective responsibility for the process and results of activities; development of skills of optimal interaction in problem and conflict situations; development of a system of group reflection, fixing the effects of cooperation in interpersonal relationships; formation of the value-oriented unity of the team.
Summing up, we note that the need and possibility of introducing integral interaction into the educational process are due to the requirements of the time and the development of society. Obviously, the integral approach is able to solve pedagogical, psychological and social problems, which is one of the most important conditions for education and contributes to the transition to a manageable and favorable future.
Andreeva, G. M. Social psychology - M .: Aspect Press, 2002.
Vernadsky V.I. Scientific thought as a planetary phenomenon. M.: Nauka, 1991. S. 157.
Korotaeva E.V. Fundamentals of interaction pedagogy: theory and practice: monograph. - Yekaterinburg: Ed. USPU, 2013.
Laitman M., Khachaturyan.V. Prospects for the 21st century: The birth of an integral world.-M.: LENAND, 2013.
Maslow A. G. Far limits of the human psyche. St. Petersburg: Eurasia, 1997.
Systemic crisis of domestic education. Analytical expert report of the group of experts V. Slobodchikov // https://izborsk-club.ru/16747 .
Sukhomlinsky V. A. I give my heart to children // Izbr. ped. cit.: In 3 volumes. M .: Pedagogy, 1979.
Fopel K. How to teach children to cooperate? Psychological games and exercises. – M.: Genesis, 1998.
Хачатурян.В. Человек в меняющемся мире. Образовательный курс Школы общественных отношений “ВКруге”-М.:ЛЕНАНД,2015.
A very useful and timely method by which we can educate the younger generation to be harmonious, merciful and knowing what the meaning of life is!